In a general form, the goal and tasks should clarify the directions by which the hypothesis proves.
The aim of the research is the final result, which the researcher would like to reach at the conclusion of his work. Let us single out the most typical goals. They may be the definition of characteristics of phenomena not previously studied; identification of the relationship of certain phenomena; the study of the development of phenomena; description of a new phenomenon; generalization, the identification of general patterns; creating classifications.
The formulation of the goal of the research paper can also be represented in various ways – traditionally used in the scientific speech cliché. We give examples of some of them. You can set a goal:
It is necessary to formulate the tasks very carefully, since the description of their solutions will subsequently make up the contents of the chapters. Headings of chapters are born precisely from the wording of problems. We propose one of the definitions of the concept “task”.
The task of the research is to select ways and means to achieve the goal in accordance with the hypothesis put forward. Tasks are best formulated in the form of an assertion of what needs to be done to achieve the goal. The formulation of tasks is based on the fragmentation of the research objective into subgoals. The enumeration of tasks is based on the principle of the least complex to the most complex, labor-intensive, and their number is determined by the depth of the research.
The goal is an ideal vision of the result, which directs the activity of a person. The researcher, in order to achieve the stated goal and verify the provisions of the hypothesis formulated by him, singles out specific research tasks.
After formulating the hypothesis, goals and objectives of the research paper follows the stage of the definition of methods.
Definition of methods
The method is the way to achieve the research goal. The decisive role of the choice of method in the success of this or that research work is evident. Methods of scientific knowledge are divided into general and special. General methods include: theoretical, empirical, mathematical.
- Simulation allows you to apply the experimental method to objects, direct action with which is difficult or impossible. It involves mental actions or practical actions with the “model”;
- abstraction consists in a mental abstraction from all that is unimportant and fixing one or more of the subject’s subjects of interest to the researcher;
- analysis and synthesis. Analysis is a method of investigation by decomposing an object into its component parts. Synthesis – the connection of the parts obtained in the analysis into a whole. Analysis and synthesis exist as a whole. Methods of analysis and synthesis are, for example, the initial stage of research – the study of literature on the research topic.
- the ascent from the abstract to the concrete is carried out in two stages. At the first stage, a single object is divided into parts, described by concepts and judgments; and at the second stage the original integrity of the object is restored. Empirical methods:
- Experimental study of the object has a number of advantages in comparison with other methods.
- statistical methods;
- methods and models of graph theory and network modeling;
- methods and models of dynamic programming;
- methods and models of mass service;
- method of visualization of data (functions, graphics, etc.). Methods are selected with the obligatory guidance of the teacher.
Conducting scientific research
Carrying out of scientific research includes two stages: actual carrying out (the so-called technological stage) and analytical, reflective stage.
A work plan is made.
In the work plan there are three parts:
- It is necessary to indicate the purpose of the planned experiments; list the necessary inventory for the experiment; forms of notes in rough notebooks. The work plan also includes the initial processing and analysis of the results of practical actions, the stage of their verification. The plan should provide for everything that can be foreseen at the first stage.
- Determine the object, the subject of research, methods; description of the experimental part of the work. The content of the experimental part depends on the theme of the work, the subject area, in accordance with which its specificity is determined. It is necessary to analyze how selected methods will help to confirm the hypothesis, to clarify the conformity to the objectives of the study;
- Registration of research results. The method of examination and presentation of the research results is prescribed, from the review to the discussion in the group of students and speeches at the conference. The more often the results are discussed in different audiences, the better for the author. At the final stage, it is advisable to think over the way to present the results of your research to a city conference, to work out the presentation forms in the form of an article and theses, to comprehend possible recommendations on the practical application of the results, i.e. to plan an innovative stage of research.
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